Complete Beginners Guide to Forex Trading 2024

Currency exchange is quite a complex world to comprehend, especially for those who are still trying to grasp the dynamics of the global financial market. Let’s talk about one of the intriguing parts of the currency exchange market: foreign exchange. Although most people refer to it as “Forex.” 

If you are a Forex trader in the world today, in Nigerians’ voice, “you are an “odogwu.” Forex trading is essentially the process of exchanging one currency for another, which takes place in a global marketplace that operates around the clock and occasionally over the counter.

Forex trading might seem so overwhelming that one might want to give up. But the truth is that whether you’re a novice or a seasoned investor, there’s something for you in this fascinating world of currency exchange. As we proceed, we’ll unravel the mysteries of Forex trading in a manner that’s both informative and accessible.

So, take a seat and prepare to embark on a journey of discovery, because this write-up will gently guide you through the essentials of Forex trading: from understanding the currencies involved and the main purposes driving this market to decoding Forex signals and exploring the various types of Forex markets.

What is Forex Trading?

Forex trading revolves around the exchange of currencies, primarily aimed at generating profits. The Forex market is literally about making predictions and executing trades based on both your personal insights and market dynamics to capitalize on opportunities. 

Ideally, to gain a deeper understanding of the market, conducting thorough research and attending webinars for valuable insights, analysis, and strategies, empowers traders to make informed decisions and navigate the complexities of the Forex market more efficiently. 

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The ability to forecast currency fluctuations is extremely beneficial in the forex sector. Picture this: With the crazy dollar’s continuous rise in the Nigerian stock exchange market, which today’s market is “1 USD-N1612,” if a forex trader can make predictions that in another few days, it will likely go up to 1680 NAIRA, that’s some huge profit margin for the individual.

Why do People Trade Forex?

As previously said, forex trading is fueled by the need to acquire financial. Forex traders, ranging from seasoned experts to individual retail investors, seek to maximize their returns. 

This vast market landscape benefits a diverse range of players—from assisting central banks in shaping their monetary policies to empowering everyday retail traders seeking opportunities in currency fluctuations tied to the global economy.

In essence, forex trading provides numerous advantages that attract people across the world. These include the market’s strong liquidity, which assures plenty of possibilities for buying and selling currencies at any given time. 

Additionally, the forex market operates 24 hours a day, providing flexibility and accessibility for different time zones. Furthermore, forex trading’s frequently low transaction costs make it an appealing option for users.

Generally, forex trading presents a promising opportunity for individuals and institutions, offering a fluid and accessible marketplace where potential profits can be realized through careful analysis and strategic decision-making.

Common Fascinating Terms Used in Forex 

  • Forex Pair

This term is used to describe both currencies you are trying to exchange at that particular time. i.e. (Naira – Dollar)

  • Pip

When Forex traders talk about profits or losses, they usually use the term “pips.”. A pip is short for “Percentage in Point” and represents the smallest increment that an exchange rate can move up or down. Usually, one pip equals the fourth decimal of most currency pairs. 

For example, if EUR/USD is currently trading at 1.1558 and rises to 1.1562, that rise would equal a change of 4 pips. However, some currency pairs have their pips located at the second decimal place, like the yen pairs. If USD/JPY currently trades at 110.25 and falls to 110.10, that fall would equal a change of 15 pips.

  • Currencies

You most certainly understand what currencies are. So you must note that when trading currencies like the dollar, pound, and euro, losses are made when you make wrong predictions.

  • Base Currencies

In simple terms, the base currency acts as a reference point or foundation for a currency pair. 

  • Leverage

In this case, traders who don’t have enough funds to trade, can always reach out to brokers; they would provide the exact funds needed; but once a trader is on leverage, you must win, or else you run at a crazy total loss.

  • Lot Size

Lot size is a way to measure the amount of money you can either lose or win. Lot size helps you manage your risk accordingly. Even when you run at losses, it won’t sink in deep because you anticipated it.

  • Instrument

Instrument refers to any financial asset or security that can be bought or sold in the market. Instruments include a diverse variety of assets, such as stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, options, futures, and contracts.

  • Bid

Bid is the best possible price at which the trader can buy the instrument being traded at the current time. In the forex market, the bid price is the highest price the broker will pay to purchase the instrument from you.

  • Ask

Ask is the best possible price at which the trader can sell the instrument being traded at the current time. In the forex market, the ask price is the lowest price at which the broker will sell the instrument to you.

  • Spread

This is the difference between the bid and ask prices. It is one of the many ways traders make money.

  • Margin

Margin is the initial capital that a trader needs to put up to open a position. A margin also allows a trader to open a larger position. When trading with margin, the trader only needs to put forward a percentage of the full value of a position to open the trade. 

What Are the 7 Major Currency Pairs?

  • The Euro/Dollar Pair (EUR/USD)
  • The Dollar/Japanese Yen (USD/JPY)
  • The British Pound Sterling/US Dollar (GBP/USD)
  • The US Dollar/Swiss Franc (USD/CHF)
  • The Australian Dollar/US Dollar (AUD/USD)
  • The US Dollar/Canadian Dollar (USD/CAD)
  • The New Zealand Dollar/US Dollar (NZD/USD)

What Are the Three Pillars of Forex?

1. Frequency

We can refer to frequency as the number of instances in which a trade setup presents itself during a given period.

2. Win Rate

To calculate the win rate, you need to divide the number of winning trades by the total number of trades executed and then multiply by 100 to express the result as a percentage. In this example, the win rate is 60%, meaning that 60% of the trades executed were profitable.

Read Also: Cryptocurrency Trading in Africa: A Step-By-Step Guide

3. Risk-to-Reward Ratio

The risk-to-reward ratio is a measure of the potential profit versus the potential loss of a trade. For example, if a trade has a risk-to-reward ratio of 1:2, it means that the potential profit is twice the size of the potential loss.

How do you Read Forex Signals?

Forex trading signals are a popular tool used mostly by beginner traders to improve their success rate and enrich their trading experience. Below are the ways that you can understand forex signals.

  1. Active: As long as a signal is active, traders are advised to follow the alert and enter the market!
  2. Get Ready: Be prepared. There is a good chance that the system is about to open a new position.
  3. Closed: The signal is no longer active and has been closed by our system.

To forecast future movements in exchange rates using past market data, traders need to look for patterns and signals. Previous price movements cause patterns to change, which technical analysts try to identify and, if correct, should signal where the exchange rate is headed next.

How Long Does a Forex Signal Last?

Each signal represents a short-term potential trade in a “4-, 6-, 8- or 12-hour” time frame and comes complete with an auto-populated trade ticket.

Signals usually last more than a single trading session or a day, anywhere between a day and a week; possibly they can even go up to a month, sometimes even longer.

Types of Forex Signals

There are two main types of forex signals. 

  1. Automated signals: They are generated by a robot or an algorithm. 
  2. Manual signals: The signals are created by a human trader. 

N.B.: Manual signals are usually more reliable, as they are based on experienced traders’ analyses of the market.

Best Forex Signals Providers Reviewed
  • 1000pip Builder is currently the top forex signal in the market.
  • is one of the best options if you want free forex signals.
  • MQL5 is an online marketplace backed by MetaTrader 5 (MT5).
  • Pips Alert is a popular forex signal provider that also trades commodities.

The Forex Market

The forex market, also known as the foreign exchange or FX market, serves as the global hub for trading national currencies. Because of the worldwide reach of trade, commerce, and finance, forex markets tend to be the world’s largest and most liquid asset markets. Currencies trade against each other as exchange rate pairs.

Types Of Forex Market

1. Spot Market

The spot market is the most basic and widely known forex market. It involves the immediate exchange of currencies at the prevailing market rates. Trades in the spot market are settled “on the spot,” meaning that the transaction is completed almost instantly, usually within two business days. 

The spot market is predominantly used by individuals, corporations, and financial institutions for various purposes, such as international trade, tourism, and speculative trading.

2. Forward Market

The forward market involves the purchase or sale of currencies for future delivery at pre-determined exchange rates. Unlike the spot market, forward contracts specify the exact date and price at which the currencies will be exchanged. 

Forward contracts are commonly used by businesses and investors to protect themselves against potential exchange rate fluctuations, lowering their foreign exchange exposure. By locking in the exchange rate in advance, players can ensure a certain level of price certainty for their future transactions.

3. Futures Market

The futures market is a regulated marketplace where standardized contracts for future currency exchanges are bought and sold. These contracts, known as currency futures, specify the amount of currency to be exchanged, the settlement date, and the agreed-upon exchange rate. 

Currency futures are traded on organized exchanges, contrary to forward contracts. Futures markets provide participants with transparency, liquidity, and the ability to speculate on future currency movements. Future markets are often used by institutional investors, speculators, and hedgers.

4. Options Market

The options market allows participants to buy or sell a specific currency at a pre-determined price (strike price) within a specified time frame. Participants in the options market are obligated to exercise their rights, hence the term “options.” There are two main types of options: “call options and put options.” 

A call option gives the holder the right to buy a currency, while a put option gives the holder the right to sell a currency. Options provide flexibility and enable participants to protect themselves from adverse currency movements or speculate on potential price changes. 

The options market is commonly used by traders and investors seeking to manage risk or profit from currency fluctuations.

How to Start Trading Forex

The trading process is where the major work takes place. Come along as we show you how it’s done.

  1. Step 1: Research and select a broker
  2. Step 2: Open a forex trading account with the broker. 
  3. Step 3: Verify your identity.
  4. Step 4: Fund your forex account. 
  5. Step 5: Research currencies and identify trading opportunities. 
  6. Step 6: Size up your first forex trade.
  7. Step 7: Monitor and manage your position.
  8. Step 8: Apply the key strategies discussed in this article and live your dream financial lifestyle.

Read Also: Financial Intelligence: Meaning and How to Develop Financial Intelligence in Business

Top Forex Trading Brokers in Africa?

  • AvaTrade
  • EXNESS Group
  • Tickmill
  • FXTM
  • FP Markets
  • FxPro
  • XM
  • Com
  • HF Markets
  • eToro
  • Fusion Markets
  • HotForex
  • CMC Markets
  • I g#
  • IC Markets
  • Pepperstone
  • MultiBank
  • VT Markets
  • Axi
  • FBS
  • Global Prime
  • Saxo Bank
  • XTB
  • C m trading


To wrap up this guide, the forex market is the thriving hub of global currency trading, where traders interact in a dynamic exchange dance and various currencies mix and interchange. 

With its massive size and liquidity, the forex market provides endless opportunities for traders to explore the currency pool. Whether you’re a seasoned investor or perhaps, new to the world of finance, the forex market is a vibrant platform for financial discovery and growth. 

So, now that you’ve discovered the ideal strategies for successful forex trading, remember—it’s more than just about numbers and charts; it is a lively ecosystem where currencies combine and fortunes are made.


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Oluwatitofunmi Olumuwagun
Oluwatitofunmi Olumuwagun
I am Oluwatitofunmi Olumuwagun , an accomplished writer with a unique blend of expertise in human resource management and other niches. With a career spanning several years, I have honed my skills in crafting impactful content that combines professional insights with a touch of creativity.

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